弗兰克·劳埃德·赖特的房子是受人尊敬的建筑,由美国历史上最具标志性的建筑师和梦想家之一设计。在他去世近60年后,他完成的532个结构中的许多现在需要专门的修复工作。

即使在最好的情况下,旧窗户的维修也是一项艰巨的挑战,尤其是在弗兰克·劳埃德·赖特(Frank Lloyd Wright)的房子里。赖特关心窗户,并围绕自然光线和景观设计manbetx客户端应用下载他的建筑。从事这种专门工作需要技能、研究和经验。

在这段视频中,John向我们展示了修复历史悠久的Frank Lloyd Wright窗户的过程,并告诉我们为什么这些原始的窗户如此珍贵。manbetx客户端应用下载

很容易就能认出弗兰克·劳埃德·赖特的标志性建筑。尤其是如果你住在芝加哥。谁会让如此美丽的作品如此年久失修呢?不幸的是,很多这样的家庭都这样做了。但像约翰·艾弗勒这样的重要保护主义者一直在带头为这些建筑注入新生命。艾弗勒是芝加哥的建筑师,他的专业组合修复了赖特的许多建筑。2008年,他着手将赖特的一幢住宅修复为自己的私人住宅。在购买的时候,它作为一个拆除出售,完全不适合居住。它有一个漏水的屋顶,管道和电气问题,外面的装饰漆成紫色。艾弗勒进行了改造,将住宅带回了最初的设计,并极大地提高了空间的能源效率。 In a recent article in Arts & Crafts Homes, Eifler had this piece of advice for approaching any home restoration: “Restoring a house with cultural or architectural significance can be overwhelming. You’re responsible for determining how history will be represented on the finished project. There’s no formula, as each house is important for different reasons. One theme is consistent though, the research must be done before the work. Do not jump in to a project without knowing when the house was built, who designed it, and for whom it was built. Know exactly what is original and what revisions and additions were made over time. Only with this knowledge can you make informed decisions about restoration and improvement.” Eifler’s tour through his home will review the history of this home, the process he went through to bring some of the original intentions back to life, and the updates he implemented for modern living.

大家好,我是约翰·艾弗勒,这里是岩石屋。我和我的搭档Bonnie已经修复它七年了,历史建筑最大的问题就是窗户。manbetx客户端应用下载这就是我们将要讨论的。但在此之前,我想先给大家介绍一下背景。这所房子是1916年设计的。这是峡谷崖区现存的五所房子之一。如果bonnie向右平移,你会看到在南边和北边都有一栋Frank Lloyd Wright的房子。它是为赖特的律师谢尔曼·布斯设计的,这些都是投机性住宅。我们的房子是基于莱特设计的价值5000美元的房子。它们都是灰泥,都是柏木装饰,窗户原本都是单层玻璃。manbetx客户端应用下载 And the difference that you can see in our house is that the windows have been converted to the way that they existed on the drawings that is there is a wooden stop to keep the glass in place. The other homes were done by the original contractor with a putty glaze stop and when you go to putty, that means you have to paint the wood because you need to cover the putty. But that’s not consistent with how Wright used to his homes. It was always a cap of stain of some kind which allowed the grain of the wood to come through. So, we went back to the original scheme with the wooden stuff and restored the windows over about a six or seven month process.

这是个很好的例子。这实际上是我地下室的窗户,在那里。外面有个屏风。这些向上翻转,在顶部合页,然后向上,它们被称为遮篷窗。manbetx客户端应用下载但这是一个很好的例子,说明了我们对整个房子的大部分经历。现在所有这些窗户都是用老式的manbetx客户端应用下载方式组装在一起的。有夹子可以穿过并绑在一起。我们发现,100年后,这个关节已经松动了,所以一旦我们剥离了所有东西,我们必须把所有东西重新连接起来。我们没有确保所有的东西都以相同的方式连接起来,而是增强了支持系统。你可以看到这里有小洞我们用了三英寸的不锈钢螺丝,我们用了大约一英寸的螺丝把它们深深扎进窗户的栏杆里。 So everything is much more firm, tied together and should work for another, ya know, hundred years without any problem. The other issue that occured on these windows is that, in their original drawings, it showed a three-inch wide wooden stop that was to keep the glass in place. Now, in all of the houses here in Ravine Bluff, that detail was eliminated. Instead, they used glazing putty, which would have been applied to a surface much like this and at 45 degrees, or 60 degrees roughly, the glazing putty kept the glass intact. Now, what that means is once you go to glazing putty, you have to use paint, or solid body stain, rather than the, you know, cabin stain that Wright originally intended. So we decided to go back to the original detail, as Wright originally drew, and use a ⅜ inch stop, which makes a big difference in the appearance of the window. Now that has been made even more complex by the way in which we’ve chosen to retrofit the older sash to accept insulating glass. That greatly increases the R-Value and insulation capability of these windows. So you start with the old, wooden frames. You buy a router and you basically rout out an extra eighth inch all the way around to accept half inch insulating glass low-E, R-Value of around 4, I believe, as compared to .9 of single pane glass. So we’ve definitely increased the insulation value of these old windows. Now the tricky part came with this ⅜ inch stop that Wright specified for these windows. What we ended up doing was having special stops made and milled that started at the ⅜ inch thickness of the outer face and then beveled to half inch at the actual glass face. This is needed in order to cover the silver be candid separating strip between the two layers of glass and yet retains the original thinness of the detail that Wright specified. So, other than that, you can see we bought new sprung bronze weather stripping and attached it to the bottom. These windows have all been coated with three layers of Sikkens, some of the other things that you end up doing is using a lot of putty to fill holes that have been made over the years. The owner in the past years, sealed Ls to keep things together, which we removed. Some of these will be reused again, this is just the little stops to keep the window in place. But, for the most part, we have hundred year old sash that will perform like new.

这与旧窗户无关,而是与新窗户有关,并使它们适合你的房子的需要。manbetx客户端应用下载这原本是一个开放的门廊。它是封闭的,所以我们想要保持封闭,为房子保留一个额外的空间。但我们希望他们也能让它看起来和以前一样。所以,我设计了这些窗户,都是用钢琴铰链铰接manbetx客户端应用下载起来的,这样整个空间都可以打开。这样做的方法是,你只要解开夹子,打开一个,再打开这些夹子,这一边打开,通过一系列的双折,整个走廊就可以再次打开。我们的计划是制作屏风,这样它就可以成为一个连续的屏风,但是一旦它们打开,进入里面的光线和空气的数量是难以置信的。值得思考的事情。

所以,前窗是我最常用于其他赖manbetx客户端应用下载特家的解决方案:威廉屋,玛丽亚当斯房子。他们都有前窗口窗格中的艺术玻璃。在我们的情况下,我们在外面挽救了所有的老原始波浪玻璃,它的效果很好,我们也想要保持这种效果。So what we elected to do is to have interior storms made that would fit in the old screen window pockets.And in this case, the glass that we used is in a low-E glass and it’s double pane insulating glass and with this you essentially get three layers of glass between you and the outside so the R-Value is actually much greater than get with new, contemporary windows. Now, in this case what we elected to do, because Wright designed a planter box right in front of the windows, which essentially makes the exterior windows unusable, these windows will remain fixed. So, in our other projects what I did was I had interior storms made that had matching screens so that one could take the storms out during the summer, put the screens in with one pin lift off hinges. But in this case, these storms will be permanent, because we can’t open the outside windows to begin with so we’re going to set these in place they haven’t been stained in the seal, but though there’ll be one catch at the top, which you can use to pull out the windows and clean both sides, outside and inside, then put them back up again. So this is the first solution to the window issue that we’ve been talking about.

看赖特设计了这些非常聪明,而不是太复杂,但它们是非常简单的竖镜图案,进入窗口设计。现在这样做,几乎不可能用任何形式的绝缘窗口或绝缘玻璃复制这一点。So what we elected to do up here was to use Indows, which fit snugly into the old screen pocket.他们的成本是,这是制造更传统的内部风暴,内部木风暴的三分之一。它也很好地为我们工作了,因为在夏天,我们可以把戒烟打开并像这样打开窗户,然后我们使用滚动屏幕为新鲜空气操作它们。manbetx客户端应用下载因此,每个房间都有两个窗户,其中夏天合并了滚manbetx客户端应用下载动屏幕,而且戒指固定了。现在在罕见的事件中,我们使用空调,这些行为派上用场,因为它们也实际上增加了空调的绝缘值。但这是一个非常简单的系统,我认为操作比那里的任何新窗口系统都更容易操作。而且关于窗户的好事是,我认为这是一个很好的意义,是这是所有manbetx客户端应用下载旧增长的木材,这是非常紧的谷物。这是一个道格拉斯杉木,被从树木那里砍伐,当时数百岁,他们将永远持续下去。 All of the bidding is proper maintenance we’ve sealed everything Sikkens. You know, there are other products on the market that uv protective of the wood and in doing so, we feel that these windows will probably outlast any kind of new windows that come in on the market these days. Now the other important thing to keep in mind is that when you’re dealing with old windows, there is this thing called a sprung bronze weather stripping. You can see it here. We reuse much of it when you’re redoing the windows. But they’re these tiny, little nails that all hold it in place. It’s a sponge bronze, so it never really loses the shape over time. And this, itt presses against the sash performing a nice weather seal. Many new windows use a kind of expanded plastic bulbs and they’re great, initially, but over time they tend to break down, get dry and crack, whereas a sprung bronze is kind of an eternal solution. Now, the Indows also helped in the sense that the sprung bronze isn’t as tight as many new windows, there is a little bit more air infiltration with it. But the Indows really seal up tight next to the wood jamb and so infiltration is pretty much eliminated by using the Indows as the inner storm, which is a big source of inefficiencies with all of those.

好的,第三个解决方案是针对二层的外门。这是我们在河滨的Tomac房子里使用的解决方案,里面有一个永久性的开窗,在这个例子中是开窗门,固定在上面然后有一个内部的面板可以通过这些拨动开关来移除。在这种情况下,当冬天来临时,我们把所有这些都翻了出来,然后套件就出来了,然后可以用一块玻璃代替,在冬天可以增加r值。这种解决方案并不像室内防风窗那样节能,因为我们只有一块额外的玻璃,而不是我在一楼安装的low-E隔热玻璃。manbetx客户端应用下载但无论如何,这是一个很好的解决方案,因为它允许在夏季和冬季的暴风雨中使用两个屏幕。

艾夫勒找到了一种方法,既能保证家里的舒适,又不牺牲历史和美学。一定要阅读《工艺美术之家》的完整文章,了解更多关于这次翻修的细节,以及艾夫勒为你的保护项目提供的建议。

橱窗英雄约翰·艾弗勒

约翰·艾弗勒(John Eifler)曾花了几十年时间修复弗兰克·劳埃德·赖特(Frank Lloyd Wright)的住宅买一个自己伊利诺斯州的交谈。作为一名标志性的美国建筑师,赖特关心窗户,并围绕自然光线和景观设计他的住宅。manbetx客户端应用下载艾夫勒并不打算更换任何一扇原来的窗户,尽管他们需要做很多工作,包括移除一层层的淡紫色油漆。manbetx客户端应用下载

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